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Read About Us in Veterinary Practice News

January 6, 2012 Leave a comment

Meet Dr. Cindy Stubbs

April 20, 2010 Leave a comment

Cynthia Stubbs, DVM, DACVIM – Small Animal Internal Medicine

Dr. Cindy Stubbs received her DVM from North Carolina State University in 1995. She then went on to complete a one-year rotating Internship in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery at Texas A&M University, followed by a Residency in Small Animal Medicine at Colorado State University (CSU). Her research interest was feline infectious diseases. In 1999, she received a Master’s Degree in Clinical Sciences based on this research at CSU. Dr. Stubbs then worked for 2 years in a large, multi-doctor specialty hospital in Marietta, GA. From 2001-2008, Dr. Stubbs was the owner and internist for North Georgia Veterinary Specialty Care in Suwanee, GA. She currently provides internal medicine services at Triangle Veterinary Emergency Clinic in Durham, NC.

Her special interests in internal medicine include all things feline, especially infectious diseases. She speaks at local, state and national conferences about topics in feline medicine (systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, renal disease, and geriatric care to name a few). She also enjoys working with canine patients, especially with their interesting endocrine concerns.

She currently lives in North Carilona with her husband, Paul Frank, their two young human children Jack and Lily, and their animal children (5 cats and 2 dogs). She enjoys reading and gardening in her “spare” time.

Meet Dr. Lisa Cellio

April 20, 2010 Leave a comment

Lisa Cellio, DVM, Diplomate, ACVIM

Dr. Lisa Cellio is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. She completed her undergraduate education at the University of Notre Dame with a Bachelor’s Degree in biology in 1994. She then attended veterinary school at the Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine. She was awarded a Doctorate of Veterinary Medicine in 1998.

Dr. Cellio went on to further her veterinary education with a small animal rotating internship at Michigan Veterinary Specialists from 1998 to 1999. She spent the next three years as an emergency veterinarian in a busy emergency and referral institution. Dr. Cellio completed a three year residency program at Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Center in Overland Park, Kansas. In 2005, she became board-certified as a Diplomate to the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Dr. Cellio is married and has two young children. The family also includes two Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and one cat. Her hobbies include running, yoga and traveling.

Evanger’s Dog and Cat Food Warning

June 15, 2009 Leave a comment

FDA Suspends Temporary Emergency Permit for Evanger’s

Recently the FDA and USDA announced suspension of a permit for Evanger’s Dog and Cat Food Company.

In the statement the FDA reports that:

“Evanger’s, operating in Wheeling, Illinois, deviated from the prescribed process, equipment, product shipment, and recordkeeping requirements in the production of the company’s thermally processed low acid canned food (LACF) products. The deviations in their processes and documentation could result in under-processed pet foods, which can allow the survival and growth of Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum), a bacterium that causes botulism in some animals as well as in humans.”

A recall has not been announced. But please do keep in mind the possibility of Clotridium botulinum infection in cases presenting with flaccid paralysis who have ingested Evanger’s canned foods.

What have our consultants been writing?

June 15, 2009 Leave a comment

Christal Pollock, DVM, DABVP (Avian)

Carpenter JW, Pollock CG, Koch DE, Hunter RP. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin after oral administration to rabbits. Am J Vet Res. 2009 Apr;70(4):522-6. PubMed PMID: 19335109.

Pollock CG. West Nile virus in the Americas. J Avian Med Surg. 2008 Jun;22(2):151-7. PubMed PMID: 18689077.


Pollock C. Diagnosis and treatment of avian renal disease. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2006 Jan;9(1):107-28. Review. PubMed PMID: 16407082.

Michael D. Willard, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Small Animal Internal Medicine)

Willard MD. Endoscopic diagnosis of diseases causing vomiting. Top Companion Anim Med. 2008 Nov;23(4):162-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 19081549.

Farnsworth CC, Herman JD, Osterstock JB, Porterpan BL, Willard MD, Hooper RN, Roussel AJ, Schmitz DG, Fogelberg K, Kochevar DT. Assessment of clinical reasoning skills in veterinary students prior to and after the clinical year of training. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 Sep 15;233(6):879-82. PubMed PMID: 18795847.

Willard M. Therapeutic approach to chronic electrolyte disorders. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2008 May;38(3):535-41, x. Review. PubMed PMID: 18402879.


Chelsea Greenberg, DVM, DACVIM (Oncology)

Greene SN, Lucroy MD, Greenberg CB, Bonney PL, Knapp DW. Evaluation of cisplatin administered with piroxicam in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007 Oct 1;231(7):1056-60. PubMed PMID: 17916030.

Greenberg CB, Boria PA, Borgatti-Jeffreys A, Raskin RE, Lucroy MD. Phase II clinical trial of combination chemotherapy with dexamethasone for lymphoma in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2007 Jan-Feb;43(1):27-32. PubMed PMID: 17209082.

Neurology Case of the Month

June 15, 2009 Leave a comment

This report is based on video evaluation and conversation with Dr. Smith regarding Fluffy Jones [regarding neurologic signs following ear cleaning].

The video evaluation is as follows: Mentation: BAR, Gait: mild vestibular quality ataxia, occasional stumbling to the right and/or left side, no evidence of UMN involvement or paresis, CN’s: Horner’s syndrome OD-rest NSF and no evidence of spontaneous nystagmus. Postural responses and reflexes were not evaluated. A mild right head tilt was also evident and occasional wide head excursions noted. The patient appears extremely alert and responsive and there does not seem to be evidence of central vestibular disease. However, she is currently on prednisone which may mask some clinical abnormalities.

Denervation hypersensitivity testing should be performed using phenylephrine OU. To confirm that the Horner’s syndrome is indeed a third order Horner’s (i.e. a post ganglionic lesion typically seen with otitis media), phenylephrine drops are used OU and any ocular changes monitored every few minutes. If resolution or near-resolution of the Horner’s occurs in less than 20 minutes, then the lesion is post-ganglionic and would support our presumption that we are dealing with ear disease. If it is between 20-40 minutes, a second order Horner’s must be considered, such as is seen with diseases of the mediastinum. If it takes greater than 40 minutes for resolution, then disease within the cervical spinal cord or midbrain must be considered (which is highly unlikely in this cat).

Since no ototoxic drugs were used to my knowledge, clinical signs likely have resulted from irritation to the sympathetic innervation in the middle ear as well as the vestibulocochlear nerve in the inner ear during the ear cleaning. If so, clinical signs will likely resolve over time but it may take months for the Horner’s syndrome to fully disappear. However, since there is no indication for prednisone in this cat and since prednisone may very well be masking a possible central vestibular disorder, re-evaluation after tapering prednisone is indicated including a full neurologic exam. If signs recur or other signs arise, MRI scanning of the head may be indicated.

Georgina Barone, DVM, DACVIM (Neurology)

Cool Recent Abstracts

January 29, 2009 Leave a comment

American Journal of Veterinary Research
January 2009, Vol. 70, No. 1, Pages 99-104

Assessment of viremia associated with experimental primary feline herpesvirus infection or presumed herpetic recrudescence in cats

Hans D. Westermeyer, DVM, Sara M. Thomasy, DVM, PhD, Helen Kado-Fong, MS, David J. Maggs, BVSc

Objective—To detect feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) in blood of cats undergoing experimental primary herpetic disease or with spontaneous disease presumed to be caused by FHV-1 reactivation.

Animals—6 young specific-pathogen–free (SPF) cats and 34 adult cats from a shelter.

Procedures—Conjunctiva and nares of SPF cats were inoculated with FHV-1, and cats were monitored for 21 days. Periodically, blood was collected for CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and detection of FHV-1 DNA via PCR assay. For shelter cats, a conjunctival swab specimen was collected for FHV-1 PCR assay, and blood mononuclear cells were tested via virus isolation (with or without hydrocortisone) and FHV-1 PCR assay.

Results—All SPF cats developed clinical and clinicopathologic evidence of upper respiratory tract and ocular disease only. Via PCR assay, FHV-1 DNA was detected in blood of all SPF cats at least once between 2 and 15 days after inoculation. Feline herpesvirus type 1 DNA was detected in conjunctival swabs of 27 shelter cats; 25 had clinical signs of herpetic infection. However, virus was not isolated from mononuclear cell samples of any shelter cat regardless of passage number or whether hydrocortisone was present in the culture medium; FHV-1 DNA was not detected in any mononuclear cell sample collected from shelter cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A brief period of viremia occurred in cats undergoing primary herpetic disease but not in cats undergoing presumed recrudescent herpetic disease. Viremia may be important in the pathogenesis of primary herpetic disease but seems unlikely to be associated with recrudescent disease.

———-

American Journal of Veterinary Research
January 2009, Vol. 70, No. 1, Pages 16-22

Evaluation of the distribution of enrofloxacin by circulating leukocytes to sites of inflammation in dogs

D. M. Boothe, DVM, PhD, A. Boeckh, DVM, PhD, H. W. Boothe, DVM, MS

Objective—To determine the effect of WBC accumulation on the concentration of enrofloxacin in inflamed tissues in dogs.

Animals—6 adult Bloodhounds.

Procedures—Dogs were instrumented bilaterally with tissue chambers. Peripheral WBCs collected from each dog were exposed in vitro to radiolabeled enrofloxacin (14C-ENR). Inflammation was induced with carrageenan in 1 chamber. Ten hours later, treated cells were administered IV to each dog such that 14C-ENR was delivered at a mean ± SD dosage of 212 ± 43 μg. Samples of extracellular fluid from inflammation and control chambers and circulating blood were then collected before (baseline) and for 24 hours after WBCs were administered. Samples were centrifuged to separate WBCs from plasma (blood) or chamber fluid. Radiolabeled enrofloxacin was scintigraphically detected and pharmacokinetically analyzed. Comparisons were made between extra- and intracellular chamber fluids by use of a Student paired t test.

Results—14C-ENR was not detectable in plasma, peripheral WBCs, control chambers, or baseline samples from inflammation chambers. However, 14C-ENR was detected in extra- cellular fluid from inflammation chambers (mean ± SD maximum concentration, 2.3 ± 0.5 ng/mL) and WBCs (maximum concentration, 7.7 ± 1.9 ng/mL). Mean disappearance half-life of 14C-ENR from extracellular fluid and WBCs from inflammation chambers was 26 ± 10 hours and 17 ± 6 hours, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—WBCs were responsible for the transport and release of 14C-ENR at sites of inflammation. Accumulation of drug by WBCs might increase the concentration of drug at the site of infection, thus facilitating therapeutic success.

———-

Veterinary Patholology 46:63-70 (2009)


Feline Gastrointestinal Eosinophilic Sclerosing Fibroplasia

L. E. Craig, E. E. Hardam, D. M. Hertzke, B. Flatland, B. W. Rohrbach and R. R. Moore

A retrospective study of cases of a unique intramural inflammatory mass within the feline gastrointestinal tract was performed in order to describe and characterize the lesion. Twenty-five cases were identified from archival surgical and postmortem tissues. The lesion most often occurred as an ulcerated intramural mass at the pyloric sphincter (n = 12) or the ileocecocolic junction or colon (n = 9); the remaining cases were in the small intestine. Seven cases also had lymph node involvement. The lesions were characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, large reactive fibroblasts, and trabeculae of dense collagen. Intralesional bacteria were identified in 56% of the cases overall and all of the ileocecocolic junction and colon lesions. Fifty-eight percent of cats tested had peripheral eosinophilia. Cats treated with prednisone had a significantly longer survival time than those receiving other treatments. We propose that this is a unique fibroblastic response of the feline gastrointestinal tract to eosinophilic inflammation that in some cases is associated with bacteria. The lesion is often grossly and sometimes histologically mistaken for neoplasia.

———-

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 23 Issue 1, Pages 43 – 49

Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Liquid Formulation of L-Thyroxine for Once Daily Treatment of Dogs with Hypothyroidism

G. Le Traon 1 , S.F. Brennan 2 , S. Burgaud 1 , S. Daminet 3 , K. Gommeren 3 , L.J.I. Horspool 4 , D. Rosenberg 5 , and C.T. Mooney 2

Background: A liquid solution of levothyroxine (L-T4) is available for treatment of canine hypothyroidism.

Hypothesis: Once daily oral administration of a liquid L-T4 solution is effective and safe for controlling hypothyroidism in dogs.

Animals: Thirty-five dogs with naturally occurring hypothyroidism.

Methods: Dogs received L-T4 solution PO once daily at a starting dosage of 20 μg/kg body weight (BW). The dose was adjusted every 4 weeks, based on clinical signs and peak serum total T4 (tT4) concentrations. Target peak serum tT4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations, 4–6 hours posttreatment, were 35–95 nmol/L and < 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Dogs were followed for up to 22 weeks after establishment of the maintenance dose.

Results: Clinical signs of hypothyroidism improved or resolved in 91% of dogs after 4 weeks of L-T4 treatment at 20 μg/kg once daily. The maintenance dose was established in 76, 94, and 100% of dogs after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment, respectively. This was 20 μg L-T4/kg BW for 79% of the dogs, 30 μg/kg BW for 15%, and 10–15 μg/kg BW in the remaining 6%, once daily. Thereafter, median peak tT4 and TSH concentrations were 51 nmol/L and 0.18 ng/mL, respectively, and remained stable during the 22-week follow-up; clinical signs did not recur.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance: All of the hypothyroid dogs had rapid clinical and hormonal responses to supplementation with the PO-administered L-T4 solution. The starting dosage of 20 μg L-T4/kg BW once daily was suitable for 79% of dogs.

———-

Journal of Small Animal Practice
Volume 50 Issue 1, Pages 9 – 14

Radiographic appearance of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in 23 cats

L. Benigni, N. Morgan* C. R. Lamb

Objective: To describe the radiographic appearance of pulmonary oedema in cats with cardiac failure.

Methods: Thoracic radiographs of 23 cats presented to a first opinion practice with signs of cardiac failure were reviewed. All cats had tachypnoea and/or dyspnoea and enlarged left atrium on echocardiography.

Results: Pulmonary oedema was characterised radiographically by an increased opacity associated with a range of patterns and variable distribution. All cats had evidence of a reticular or granular interstitial pattern. This occurred in combination with alveolar pattern in 19 (83 per cent) cats, including six with air bronchograms, with increased diameter of pulmonary vessels in 16 (71 per cent) cats and with bronchial pattern in 14 (61 per cent) cats. The distribution of pulmonary oedema was considered to be diffuse/non-uniform in 14 (61 per cent) cats, diffuse/uniform in four (17 per cent) cats, multi-focal in four (17 per cent) cats and focal in the remaining one (4 per cent). Nine (39 per cent) cats were considered to have a regional distribution of oedema, including five (22 per cent) with a ventral distribution, three (13 per cent) with a caudal distribution and one (4 per cent) cat with a hilar distribution. The distribution of pulmonary opacities was bilaterally symmetrical in five (22 per cent) cats.

Clinical Significance: The variable appearance of feline pulmonary oedema is likely to complicate its radiographic diagnosis.

Introduction to Veterinary Answers, LLC

October 25, 2008 Leave a comment
Veterinary Answers is a phone, fax, and email consultation service provided by specialist veterinarians to assist general practice veterinarians with their cases and practice. Our goal is to provide veterinarians with the information that will allow them to refer fewer patients and provide the highest standard of care available. We provide this service to licensed veterinarians only.

In addition to assistance with individual cases, we also provide article searches, we will set up hospital protocols for infection control or commonly encountered diseases, and answer any question you have in small animal veterinary medicine.

In this blog, we will review current literature and provide our assessment of recent articles that bring up clinically relevant or controversial topics.

Contact us with your questions or comments.
Toll Free Phone (877) 262-3024

Toll Free Fax (888) 496-4473

Email – jfryer@veterinaryanswers.com

www.veterinaryanswers.com

Managing Twins in the Mare

September 29, 2008 Leave a comment





By
C. Scott Bailey, DVM, Dipl. ACT

Although twinning in the horse is a well-described condition academically, it remains a topic for which most horse-owners and many veterinarians feel inadequately prepared. Historically, twinning has been the most common cause of mid- to late-term pregnancy loss in mares; this is because the equine placenta requires a large surface area (the entire uterus) to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus in late gestation. Even a relatively small decrease in surface area will result in growth- retardation and a smaller and less thrifty foal at birth.

Physiologically, twins are most often the product of 2 asynchronous ovulations in a single cycle, which may be up to 5 days apart in the mare. For the first 16 days both developing embryos will be propelled around the uterus either adjacent to each other or separately, and they will then become fixed by muscular contraction between 16 and 17 days. In 80% of cases, the embryos are fixed together at the base of one horn, and in 20% of cases, they are each fixed in separate horns. In the latter case, there is no competition for nutrients in early gestation and the vast majority of cases result in late-term abortion. However, if the embryos are adjacent to each other, they may undergo spontaneous regression (70%) by day 40. Overall, in one study 64% of naturally occurring twins were found to undergo spontaneous regression, most before day 26. The likelihood of spontaneous reduction decreased thereafter until day 40. After day 40, 90% of twins will result in late-term pregnancy failure, either in the form of abortion of both fetuses, stillbirth and stunting of term foals or dystocia.

Despite the high rate of pregnancy failure in mares carrying twins, the incidence of double-ovulations is high (20%) is some breeds. The very act of reducing twins results in increased numbers of horses that carry the genetic propensity for twinning. Likewise, inducing ovulation with exogenous hormones also increases the likelihood of double-ovulations. As a result, the use of ultrasound for early pregnancy diagnosis has become routine for many equine practitioners. At this stage, reduction of pregnancy by “pinching” one embryonic vesicle can be performed reliably and safely. This procedure is generally performed around 14-15 days of gestation – a time at which embryonic vesicles are readily detectable and are still mobile in the uterus, making it possible to move one embryo to the tip of a horn by manual trans-rectal manipulation. Once the vesicle is separated adequately from the remaining embryo, and is at the tip of a horn it can be “pinched” manually or with the ultrasound. This procedure has a 90-95% success-rate when performed by a skilled practitioner and can be performed early in pregnancy, at a time in which re-breeding the mare is possible if the procedure results in the loss of both embryos.

After this critical window, success-rates for various reduction methods are low. Between 17 and 26 days natural reduction with or without the benefit of energy deprivation by eliminating grain-based feed may be the most effective means of eliminating one twin. However, if twins are still identified after day 30, another means of reduction should be selected. Allowing the pregnancy to continue beyond day 35 will result in the development of endometrial cups and a loss of the remaining-breeding season if pregnancy is lost subsequently. Therefore, trans-vaginal ultrasound-guided twin reduction may be attempted at this time. A 5 – 7.5 MHz vaginal ultrasound probe with a needle-guide is used to visualize one embryo, which is held adjacent to the probe with one hand in the rectum. The needle is then punctured through the vaginal wall and uterus, and the fetal fluids are aspirated aggressively. This technique has been reported with a 30% success-rate for the production of one live foal in the case of unilateral twins, and up to 70% success-rate for the production of one live foal in the case of bilateral twins when performed between 30 and 36 days.

After 35-36 days of pregnancy, two procedures have been described for selective reduction of one twin.

Most recently, cranio-cervical dislocation of one fetus has been described by a practitioner in central Kentucky. While not widely available, this technique has been demonstrated to carry a relatively high success-rate of >60%. It can be performed trans-rectally or surgically by flank laparotomy, and has been described between 60 and 110 days. At this stage of gestation, the gender of each fetus can be determined, and the fetus is selected for reduction based on both gender and location in the uterus. In addition, this procedure can be performed before complete development of the placenta and may have a higher success-rate than later procedures due to the ability of the remaining fetus to form a fully functional placenta.

Alternatively, ultrasound-guided trans-abdominal cardiac puncture has been well-described in the literature, with a success-rate around 50%. For this procedure, the fetuses are identified by trans-abdominal ultrasound after sedation of the mare and one fetus is injected with KCl or procaine penicillin by intra-cardiac puncture using a spinal needle. The success of this procedure is operator-dependent, but is less invasive than the surgical procedure described above and requires little equipment other than a 3.5 MHz curvilinear probe. It is best performed between 115 and 130 days of gestation and as for the procedure above, both location and fetal gender may be used as criteria for selection. It should be noted that this procedure may result in the birth of a small and unthrifty foal. This is likely due to the fact that the placenta is largely developed by 120 days and the area of placenta which opposes that of the reduced twin remains unavailable for nutrient transfer for the remainder of gestation.

When all other procedures fail to achieve the goal of one developing fetus, abortion of both conceptuses is the single remaining option. Due to the risk of dystocia and periparturient complications to the mare and the low chance of achieving two live foals (1- 2%), allowing the pregnancy to be maintained naturally cannot be recommended. Chemical abortion can easily be achieved before formation of the endometrial cups (36-40 days) with a single dose of prostaglandin or prostaglandin analog, but may require multiple doses of a prostaglandin/ prostaglandin analog and/or oxytocin in later gestation. At this time, abortion should be performed in a hospital-setting, where the mare can be monitored carefully and where parturition can be attended.

Thus, while twins undoubtedly constitute a significant risk to equine pregnancy, there are many methods of managing them successfully. Indeed, the common use of ultrasound for early pregnancy diagnosis has been so successful that many practitioners now feel that double-ovulations are actually of benefit, because they increase the likelihood of fertilization and because any twins can readily be managed early in gestation.

References


Ginther OJ. Twin embryos in the mare: 1. From ovulation to fixation. Equine Vet J 1989; 21:166-70

Leadon DP, Rossdale PD, Jeffcot LB et al. A comparison of agents for inducing parturition in mares in the pre-viable and premature periods of gestation. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 1982; 32: 597-602

Macpherson ML, Homco LD, Varner DD. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided allantocentesis for pregnancy elimination in the mare Biol Reprod Monogr 1995; 1: 215-223

Rantanen NW, Kincaid B. Ultrasound guided fetal cardiac puncture. A method of twin reduction in the mare. Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 1988; 34:173-79

Wolfsdorf KE. Management of postfixation Twins in Mares. Vet Clin Equine 2006; 22: 713-725

RSS feeds for Veterinary Journals

June 26, 2008 Leave a comment

Last year, during the food recall, it seemed like new foods were being added to the recall list on a daily basis and I had great difficulty keeping up. In fact, when my own cat had eaten recalled food, I did not find out until VetCentric called me at home and at the office to alert me. It was then that I discovered the FDA‘s RSS feed on recalls. Every day, I would check my RSS reader for the latest on recall alerts and I was no longer in the dark when new recalls were announced.

Since then, I have found RSS feeds to be a helpful way of keeping up with the latest veterinary literature. I read through the abstracts as soon as they are published online & then determine if I want to read the entire article. Many US veterinary college libraries allow veterinarians in their state to request individual articles for free or a reduced fee. You can also order individual articles through the Veterinary Information Network (VIN). The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons subscribes to many veterinary journals and any veterinarian (whether in the UK or abroad) can become a member for a very reasonable price. This keeps printed journal subscriptions to a minimum and means less paper waste. And you can keep a pdf of each article on file in your computer, rather than paper files which take up so much space and time to maintain. You can also have a separate drive or an online service like Carbonite to back up your files, so that all your journal articles are still accessible if your computer is lost, stolen, destroyed, or self-destructs.

There are numerous RSS readers out there. I like Google Reader, as it is easy to read and is incorporated in to my Google account. Yahoo has a nice reader as well.

There are also services which will search newly released articles for parameters you set and either send you an email, or place it in a mailbox for you to check when you next login. PubMed’s MyNCBI and Highwire both offer these services. On the human side, Amedeo will send you a weekly list of abstracts on the subject of your choice (from a menu) and journal of your choice (from a menu). I am trying to convince Amedeo to start a veterinary journal alert service. I will let you know if I am successful. Google recently added Google Alerts, which will send you email alerts when new entries for a specific search term come up. However, you cannot limit the search to journals – so lots of useless stuff may come up.

I have found lists of human medical journal RSS feeds, but have yet to find something similar in Veterinary Medicine. So here are the ones I have found so far. Please feel free to comment if you find additional links or have a problem with a link.

RSS FEEDS – Look for the orange symbols above to find the link for the RSS feed
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
American Journal of Veterinary Research
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Australian Veterinary Journal
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science
Equine Veterinary Education
Equine Veterinary Journal
Journal of Small Animal Practice
Journal of the American Medical Association
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
The Lancet
Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Mycoses
New England Journal of Medicine
New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research (must scroll down list to find it)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Research in Veterinary Science
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Tropical Animal Health and Production
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Veterinary Dermatology
Veterinary Economics – free content
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
The Veterinary Journal
Veterinary Medicine – free content
Veterinary Microbiology
Veterinary Ophthalmology
Veterinary Parasitology
Veterinary Pathology – free content
Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound
Veterinary Research
Veterinary Research Communications
Veterinary Surgery
Zoonoses & Public Health

ELECTRONIC TABLE OF CONTENTS ALERTS, No RSS
Australian Equine Veterinarian
Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology
Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery
In Practice – British Veterinary Association
Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Journal of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine in Tropical Countries
Journal of Veterinary Behavior
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
NAVC Clinician’s Brief – Free registration & content
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice
Veterinary Health and Safety Digest
The Veterinary Record

AVAILABLE CONTENT ONLINE IF YOU SUBSCRIBE, No RSS
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research
Canadian Veterinary Journal
Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
Compendium Equine
Exotic DVM – free subscription for vets, techs, students
Flemish Veterinary Journal
Online Journal of Veterinary Research
The Pig Journal
Review of Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Review of Medical and Veterinary Mycology
Standards of Care
Veterinary Bulletin
Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Veterinary Focus – free subscription for vets, techs, students
Veterinary Forum
Veterinary Technician
Veterinary Therapeutics

FREE CONTENT, no RSS
British Veterinary Dental Association Journal
The International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine
The Irish Veterinary Journal
Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research
The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science (Japanese Society of Veterinary Science)
Journal of Veterinary Science
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Veterinary Neurology and Neurosurgery
Veterinary Practice News
The Veterinary Quarterly
Veterinary Review
VetScite

OTHER INTERESTING LINKS
AVMA Directory – need AVMA membership
Canadian Compendium of Veterinary Products – need annual subscription
Compendium of Veterinary Products – need AVMA membership
FDA – News, Recalls, Drug shortages, etc.
Material Safety Data Sheets – need AVMA membership
Merck Veterinary Manual – Free Content
Veterinary Biologic Products – Licensees and Permittees -USDA- December 2007