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Archive for the ‘Urinary’ Category

Our Consultants in Print

January 12, 2012 Leave a comment

Mary B. Nabity, DVM, PhD, DACVP

Proteomic analysis of urine from male dogs during early stages of tubulointerstitial injury in a canine model of progressive glomerular disease.

Nabity MB, Lee GE, Dangott LJ, Ciancolo R, Suchodolski JS, Steiner JM.

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Effect of dietary protein content on the renal parameters of normal cats

Backlund B, Zoran DL, Nabity MB, Norby B, Bauer JE

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Practical Recent Abstracts

September 29, 2008 Leave a comment

Edited by Jennifer S. Fryer, DVM

The influence of crystalloid type on acid-base and electrolyte status of cats with urethral obstruction

Drobatz KJ, Cole SG. JVECCS 2008; 18: 355 – 361.

To compare the effect of a balanced isotonic crystalloid solution with that of 0.9% sodium chloride on the acid[ndash]base and electrolyte status of cats with urethral obstruction. Randomized prospective clinical trial. Academic veterinary emergency room.

Sixty-eight cats with naturally occurring urethral obstruction. Cats were randomized to receive either a balanced isotonic crystalloid solution (Normosol-R, n=39) or 0.9% sodium chloride (n=29) for fluid therapy. Baseline venous blood gas and blood electrolyte values were obtained at the time of admission and at intervals during the course of therapy. Baseline values were similar between groups.

Cats receiving Normosol-R had a significantly higher blood pH at 12 hours, a significantly greater increase in blood pH from baseline at 6 and 12 hours, as well as a significantly higher blood bicarbonate concentration at 12 hours and a significantly greater increase in blood bicarbonate from baseline at 6 and 12 hours. Conversely, the increase in blood chloride from baseline was significantly higher at 2, 6, and 12 hours in cats receiving 0.9% sodium chloride. There were no significant differences in the rate of decline of blood potassium from baseline between groups. Subgroup analysis of hyperkalemic cats (K+>6.0 mmol/L) and acidemic cats (pHEfficacy and tolerability of once-daily cephalexin in canine superficial pyoderma: an open controlled study

Toma S, Colombo S, Cornegliani L, Persico P, Galzerano M, Gianino MM, Noli C. Journal of Small Animal Practice 2008; 49: 384 – 39.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of oral cephalexin given at 30 mg/kg once daily in dogs with superficial pyoderma and to compare them with those of oral cephalexin given at 15 mg/kg twice daily.

Methods: Twenty dogs with superficial pyoderma were treated with cephalexin at 30 to 60 mg/kg orally once daily (group A) and compared with 20 dogs treated at a dose of 15 to 30 mg/kg orally twice daily (group B). Dogs were treated until 14 days after clinical remission. Type and distribution of lesions, pruritus and general health status were assessed every 14 days using a numerical scale until 14 days after treatment discontinuation. Total scores for each evaluation day were compared between the two groups as well as time to obtain resolution and percentage of relapses.

Results: Resolution of superficial pyoderma was obtained in all dogs in 14 to 42 days (median 28 days for both groups), with no difference between groups. Six dogs experienced vomiting or diarrhoea but did not require discontinuation of the treatment. Only one dog (in group A) relapsed nine days after treatment discontinuation.
Clinical Significance: Once-daily cephalexin is as effective as twice-daily cephalexin in the treatment of canine superficial pyoderma.

****
Evaluation of antibodies against feline coronavirus 7b protein for diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis in cats

Kennedy MA, Abd-Eldaim M, Zika SE, Mankin JM, Kania SA. AJVR 2008; 69: 1179-1182.

Objective—To determine whether expression of feline coronavirus (FCoV) 7b protein, as indicated by the presence of specific serum antibodies, consistently correlated with occurrence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats.

Sample Population—95 serum samples submitted for various diagnostic assays and 20 samples from specific-pathogen–free cats tested as negative control samples.

Procedures—The 7b gene from a virulent strain of FCoV was cloned into a protein expression vector. The resultant recombinant protein was produced and used in antibody detection assays via western blot analysis of serum samples. Results were compared with those of an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for FCoV-specific antibody and correlated with health status.

Results—Healthy IFA-seronegative cats were seronegative for antibodies against the 7b protein. Some healthy cats with detectable FCoV-specific antibodies as determined via IFA were seronegative for antibodies against the 7b protein. Serum from cats with FIP had antibodies against the 7b protein, including cats with negative results via conventional IFA. However, some healthy cats, as well as cats with conditions other than FIP that were seropositive to FCoV via IFA, were also seropositive for the 7b protein.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Expression of the 7b protein, as indicated by detection of antibodies against the protein, was found in most FCoV-infected cats. Seropositivity for this protein was not specific for the FCoV virulent biotype or a diagnosis of FIP.

Emergency Management of the Blocked Ferret

April 29, 2008 Leave a comment

By Christal Pollock, DVM, DABVP-Avian

Diagnosis of urethral obstruction in the male ferret is rarely a diagnostic challenge, but the need to place a urinary catheter in a 1-kg patient can be intimidating.

Urinary catheter placement can be challenging in the male ferret because of its small size and its J-shaped os penis. Locate the prepuce on the ventral abdomen just caudal to the umbilicus. The os penis is palpable. After gently extruding the penis, it may help to grasp the base with a gauze square. Aseptically prepare the penis, and use a 24-gauge catheter with the needle removed to find and dilate the urethral opening. The urethral opening is located on the ventral surface of the penis just proximal to the J-shaped curve.

After the urethral opening is found and dilated, pass a urinary catheter. A 3.5 Fr red rubber catheter may be used in a very large male, however most individuals require a smaller tube. A 3-Fr 11-in urinary catheter specifically designed for ferrets is available (Slippery Sam, Global Veterinary Products; New Buffalo, MI) or a 22- or 20-gague jugular catheter may be used. Pre-measure red rubber catheters and jugular catheters. Leave the jugular catheter stylet in place to facilitate passage, but manipulate the catheter carefully. Resistance most often occurs as the catheter travels around the pelvic flexure. Gently flush the urethra with sterile saline to facilitate catheter passage.

· Anesthesia is required for adequate muscle relaxation. Most individuals should be intubated and maintained on isoflurane or sevoflurane when anesthetized for extended periods. Avoid ketamine in ferrets with urethral obstruction.

· When urinary catheterization proves difficult, remove a small amount of urine once via cystocentesis to reduce pressure and allow passage of the urinary catheter. Repeated cystocentesis is not recommended because of thin bladder wall. In rare cases, percutaneous cystostomy may be performed when catheter placement fails.

· Suture butterfly tape strips near the prepuce to secure the catheter. Use tape to fasten the catheter or attached tubing to the tail base to minimize tension on the line. Bandaging the abdomen may also minimize the risk of rotation. Create a closed collection system by attaching a small intravenous bag and monitor urine production. The average 1-kg ferret produces 26-28 ml of urine over a 24-hour period (range: 8-48 ml).

· To catheterize the female ferret, place her in ventral recumbency and elevate the rear with a rolled towel. Aseptically prepare the vulva and perivulvar region, and then insert a sterile vaginal speculum or otoscope. Locate the urethral opening on the vestibule floor 1-cm cranial to the clitoral fossa. Insert a 3.5-Fr red rubber catheter, which may be fitted with a wire stylet.

The most important cause of dysuria or stranguria in the male ferret is prostatomegaly secondary to adrenal disease. Struvite urolithiasis may also cause urethral obstruction, however the incidence is relatively low now that ferret food is commercially available. (Cystitis and prostatic abscesses are uncommon but potential causes of stranguria and dysuria in the ferret). History and physical examination may provide clues to the underlying cause of urethral obstruction, but signalment is not particularly helpful. Most affected ferrets are middle aged to older, although any age may be affected.

Adrenal disease

Struvite urolithiasis

Diet

Good diet (Animal protein-based)

Bad diet (Plant protein-based)

Exam findings

Dorsal symmetrical alopecia

—–

Laboratory results

+/- Urinary tract infection

Non-regenerative anemia

Urinary tract infection

Crystalluria

Radiographs

Unremarkable

Radiopacity

Ultrasonography

Prostatomegaly

Adrenomegaly

—–

· Ferret adrenal disease is associated with an elevation in sex steroid hormones, and elevated androgen levels can leads to prostatomegaly. Dorsal symmetrical alopecia is also a common clinical sign.

· Ferrets require high quality, animal-based dietary protein. Therefore a low quality, plant protein-based diet promotes development of alkaline urine and struvite crystalluria.

· Ferrets normally have relaxed abdomens that are easy to palpate. Although pain will cause the abdominal muscles to tense, the over distended bladder is still palpable. There may also be evidence of urine dribbling and the prepuce may be red from excessive licking.

· Normal ferret biochemistry is similar to that in other mammals with a few exceptions. Creatinine in the ferret generally ranges from 0.1-0.3 mg/dL with values almost always less than 0.5 mg/dL. Creatinine from 0.7-1.0 mg/dL signifies azotemia.

· Obtain whole body survey radiographs using tabletop technique, high-speed film, and fine screen cassettes. Contrast radiography may be useful in identifying urethral stones. Enlarged adrenal glands are rarely visible on radiographs, and ultrasonography is needed. Note that renal cysts are a common incidental finding.

· Ferrets are relatively stoic animals, but do not ignore pain management. Provide preemptive analgesia, and monitor ferrets carefully for signs of discomfort. Signs of pain may include anorexia, lethargy, crying, stiff movements, squinting, and an inability to sleep in a natural, curled position.

References & Further Reading

Castanheira de Matos RE, Morrisey JK. Common procedures in the pet ferret. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2006; 9: 347-365.

Esteves MI, Marini RP, Ryden EB, et al. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate and evaluation of renal function in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Am J Vet Res 1994;55:166-172.

Pollock CG. Emergency medicine of the ferret. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice. 10(2): 463-500, 2007.

Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. 2nd ed. St. Louis: WB Saunders Co, 2003: 2-134.

Emergency Management of the Blocked Ferret

April 29, 2008 Leave a comment
By Christal Pollock, DVM, DABVP-Avian

Diagnosis of urethral obstruction in the male ferret is rarely a diagnostic challenge, but the need to place a urinary catheter in a 1-kg patient can be intimidating.

Urinary catheter placement can be challenging in the male ferret because of its small size and its J-shaped os penis. Locate the prepuce on the ventral abdomen just caudal to the umbilicus. The os penis is palpable. After gently extruding the penis, it may help to grasp the base with a gauze square. Aseptically prepare the penis, and use a 24-gauge catheter with the needle removed to find and dilate the urethral opening. The urethral opening is located on the ventral surface of the penis just proximal to the J-shaped curve.

After the urethral opening is found and dilated, pass a urinary catheter. A 3.5 Fr red rubber catheter may be used in a very large male, however most individuals require a smaller tube. A 3-Fr 11-in urinary catheter specifically designed for ferrets is available (Slippery Sam, Global Veterinary Products; New Buffalo, MI) or a 22- or 20-gague jugular catheter may be used. Pre-measure red rubber catheters and jugular catheters. Leave the jugular catheter stylet in place to facilitate passage, but manipulate the catheter carefully. Resistance most often occurs as the catheter travels around the pelvic flexure. Gently flush the urethra with sterile saline to facilitate catheter passage.

· Anesthesia is required for adequate muscle relaxation. Most individuals should be intubated and maintained on isoflurane or sevoflurane when anesthetized for extended periods. Avoid ketamine in ferrets with urethral obstruction.

· When urinary catheterization proves difficult, remove a small amount of urine once via cystocentesis to reduce pressure and allow passage of the urinary catheter. Repeated cystocentesis is not recommended because of thin bladder wall. In rare cases, percutaneous cystostomy may be performed when catheter placement fails.

· Suture butterfly tape strips near the prepuce to secure the catheter. Use tape to fasten the catheter or attached tubing to the tail base to minimize tension on the line. Bandaging the abdomen may also minimize the risk of rotation. Create a closed collection system by attaching a small intravenous bag and monitor urine production. The average 1-kg ferret produces 26-28 ml of urine over a 24-hour period (range: 8-48 ml).

· To catheterize the female ferret, place her in ventral recumbency and elevate the rear with a rolled towel. Aseptically prepare the vulva and perivulvar region, and then insert a sterile vaginal speculum or otoscope. Locate the urethral opening on the vestibule floor 1-cm cranial to the clitoral fossa. Insert a 3.5-Fr red rubber catheter, which may be fitted with a wire stylet.

The most important cause of dysuria or stranguria in the male ferret is prostatomegaly secondary to adrenal disease. Struvite urolithiasis may also cause urethral obstruction, however the incidence is relatively low now that ferret food is commercially available. (Cystitis and prostatic abscesses are uncommon but potential causes of stranguria and dysuria in the ferret). History and physical examination may provide clues to the underlying cause of urethral obstruction, but signalment is not particularly helpful. Most affected ferrets are middle aged to older, although any age may be affected.

Adrenal disease

Struvite urolithiasis

Diet

Good diet (Animal protein-based)

Bad diet (Plant protein-based)

Exam findings

Dorsal symmetrical alopecia

—–

Laboratory results

+/- Urinary tract infection

Non-regenerative anemia

Urinary tract infection

Crystalluria

Radiographs

Unremarkable

Radiopacity

Ultrasonography

Prostatomegaly

Adrenomegaly

—–

· Ferret adrenal disease is associated with an elevation in sex steroid hormones, and elevated androgen levels can leads to prostatomegaly. Dorsal symmetrical alopecia is also a common clinical sign.

· Ferrets require high quality, animal-based dietary protein. Therefore a low quality, plant protein-based diet promotes development of alkaline urine and struvite crystalluria.

· Ferrets normally have relaxed abdomens that are easy to palpate. Although pain will cause the abdominal muscles to tense, the over distended bladder is still palpable. There may also be evidence of urine dribbling and the prepuce may be red from excessive licking.

· Normal ferret biochemistry is similar to that in other mammals with a few exceptions. Creatinine in the ferret generally ranges from 0.1-0.3 mg/dL with values almost always less than 0.5 mg/dL. Creatinine from 0.7-1.0 mg/dL signifies azotemia.

· Obtain whole body survey radiographs using tabletop technique, high-speed film, and fine screen cassettes. Contrast radiography may be useful in identifying urethral stones. Enlarged adrenal glands are rarely visible on radiographs, and ultrasonography is needed. Note that renal cysts are a common incidental finding.

· Ferrets are relatively stoic animals, but do not ignore pain management. Provide preemptive analgesia, and monitor ferrets carefully for signs of discomfort. Signs of pain may include anorexia, lethargy, crying, stiff movements, squinting, and an inability to sleep in a natural, curled position.

References & Further Reading

Castanheira de Matos RE, Morrisey JK. Common procedures in the pet ferret. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2006; 9: 347-365.

Esteves MI, Marini RP, Ryden EB, et al. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate and evaluation of renal function in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Am J Vet Res 1994;55:166-172.

Pollock CG. Emergency medicine of the ferret. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice. 10(2): 463-500, 2007.

Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. 2nd ed. St. Louis: WB Saunders Co, 2003: 2-134.